2001 Report on Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Released by the Office of the Coordinator
(October 5, 2001)
The Secretary of State designates
Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO’s), in consultation
with the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury.
These designations are undertaken pursuant to the Immigration
and Nationality Act, as amended by the Antiterrorism
and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. FTO designations
are valid for two years, after which they must be redesignated
or they automatically expire. Redesignation after two
years is a positive act and represents a determination
by the Secretary of State that the organization has
continued to engage in terrorist activity and still
meets the criteria specified in law.
- In October 1997, former Secretary of State Madeleine
K. Albright approved the designation of the first
30 groups as Foreign Terrorist Organizations.
- In October 1999, Secretary Albright re-certified
27 of these groups’ designations but allowed three
organizations to drop from the list because their
involvement in terrorist activity had ended and they
no longer met the criteria for designation.
- Secretary Albright designated one new FTO in 1999
(al Qa’ida) and another in 2000 (Islamic Movement
- Secretary of State Colin L. Powell has designated
two new FTO’s (Real IRA and AUC) in 2001.
- In October 2001, Secretary Powell re-certified the
designation of 26 of the 28 FTO’s whose designation
was due to expire, and combined two previously designated
groups (Kahane Chai and Kach) into one.
List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (as
of October 5, 2001)
|1. Abu Nidal Organization
2. Abu Sayyaf Group
3. Armed Islamic Group (GIA)
4. Aum Shinrikyo
5. Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
6. Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group)
7. HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
8. Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)
9. Hizballah (Party of God)
10. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
11. al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad)
12. Kahane Chai (Kach)
13. Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)
14. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
15. Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK)
16. National Liberation Army (ELN)
||17. Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
18. Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
19. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
20. PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC)
22. Real IRA
23. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
24. Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA)
25. Revolutionary Organization 17 November
26. Revolutionary People's Liberation Army/Front
27. Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL)
28. United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)
NOTE: For descriptions of these foreign
terrorist organizations, please refer to "Patterns
of Global Terrorism: 2000."
Criteria for Designation
- The organization must be foreign.
- The organization must engage in terrorist activity
as defined in Section 212 (a)(3)(B) of the Immigration
and Nationality Act. (** - see below)
- The organization’s activities must threaten the
security of U.S. nationals or the national
security (national defense, foreign relations, or
the economic interests) of the United States.
Effects of Designation
- It is unlawful for a person in the United States
or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States
to provide funds or other material support to a
Representatives and certain members of a designated
FTO, if they are aliens, can be denied visas or excluded
from the United States.
- U.S. financial institutions must block funds of
designated FTO’s and their agents and report the
blockage to the Office of Foreign Assets Control,
U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- Deters donations or contributions to named organizations
- Heightens public awareness and knowledge of terrorist
- Signals to other governments our concern about
- Stigmatizes and isolates designated terrorist
The Secretary of State makes decisions concerning the
designation and redesignation of FTO’s following an
exhaustive interagency review process in which all evidence
of a group’s activity, from both classified and open
sources, is scrutinized. The State Department, working
closely with the Justice and Treasury Departments and
the intelligence community, prepares a detailed "administrative
record" which documents the terrorist activity of the
designated FTO. Seven days before publishing an FTO
designation in the Federal
Register, the Department of State provides classified
notification to Congress.
Under the statute, designations are subject to judicial
review. In the event of a challenge to a group’s FTO
designation in federal court, the U.S. government relies
upon the administrative record to defend the Secretary’s
decision. These administrative records contain intelligence
information and are therefore classified.
FTO designations expire in two years unless renewed.
The law allows groups to be added at any time following
a decision by the Secretary, in consultation with the
Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury.
The Secretary may also revoke designations after determining
that there are grounds for doing so and notifying Congress.
** The Immigration and Nationality
Act defines terrorist activity to mean: any activity
which is unlawful under the laws of the place where
it is committed (or which, if committed in the United
States, would be unlawful under the laws of the United
States or any State) and which involves any of the following:
(I) The highjacking or sabotage of
any conveyance (including an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle).
(II) The seizing or detaining, and
threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain,
another individual in order to compel a third person
(including a governmental organization) to do or abstain
from doing any act as an explicit or implicit condition
for the release of the individual seized or detained.
(III) A violent attack upon an internationally
protected person (as defined in section 1116(b)(4) of
title 18, United States Code) or upon the liberty of
such a person.
(IV) An assassination.
(V) The use of any-
(a) biological agent, chemical agent,
or nuclear weapon or device, or
(b) explosive or firearm (other than
for mere personal monetary gain), with intent to endanger,
directly or indirectly, the safety of one or more individuals
or to cause substantial damage to property.
(VI) A threat, attempt, or conspiracy
to do any of the foregoing.
(iii) The term "engage in terrorist
activity" means to commit, in an individual capacity
or as a member of an organization, an act of terrorist
activity or an act which the actor knows, or reasonably
should know, affords material support to any individual,
organization, or government in conducting a terrorist
activity at any time, including any of the following
(I) The preparation or planning of
a terrorist activity.
(II) The gathering of information
on potential targets for terrorist activity.
(III) The providing of any type of
material support, including a safe house, transportation,
communications, funds, false documentation or identification,
weapons, explosives, or training, to any individual
the actor knows or has reason to believe has committed
or plans to commit a terrorist activity.
(IV) The soliciting of funds or other
things of value for terrorist activity or for any terrorist
(V) The solicitation of any individual
for membership in a terrorist organization, terrorist
government, or to engage in a terrorist activity.