During the final week of October 2011, the Israeli Air Force took part in a large-scale, distance-strike joint training operation together with pilots from the Italian, Dutch and German Air Forces at the Decimomannu Air Base on the island of Sardinia in the Meditteranean Sea.
The maneuvers included several different bombing scenarios in addition to long-distance missions and midair fueling.
The IAF has the need to train for long-range missions in the case of any future attack on the nuclear facilities in Iran and the georgraphical limitations of Israel does not allow the proper space for such training. As such, the IAF trains with Italian forces on the island of Sardinia biannually.
"We have to train away from our home-base and this drill was an excellent platform," Lt.-Col. L., who commands the IAF squadron heading the Sardinia maneuvers, told an Israeli news organization. "We trained for distant-strikes, long-range missions and every possible scenario."
Israel brought 17 fighter jets (F-16 C and D models), 3 "Oryx" refueling tankers and a Gulfstream 5 G-550 radar plane for the manuevers. The Italian, Dutch, German and NATO forces also supplied Eurofighter planes. NATO reportedly also used its famed Typhoon jet – considered one of the best multi-combat fighter jets in the world – in the exercise.
"The pilots flew in unfamiliar skies, which allowed them to deal with things they don't normally encounter," Lt.-Col. L. said. "If we want to be prepared for war we have to train in unfamiliar terrain."
In November 2013, fighter planes from the Greek and Italian Air Forces joined their counterparts from the U.S. to conduct joint training manuevers in Israel, codenamed Exercise Blue Flag. The drill represented the largest military air exercise in Israel's history, as more than 50 foreign and Israeli fighter jets were involved. The exercises' goals were to examine the group's general aerial capabilities and it included training missions to identify anti-aircraft missiles as well as surface-to-air ones and also included mock dogfights.