The peace treaty between Jordan and Israel,
signed at the Aqaba-Eilat border crossing (October 1994), was preceded
by a meeting of King Hussein and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in Washington three months earlier when the two leaders proclaimed an
end to the state of war between their countries.
Although de facto at war with each other for 46 years, Israel and Jordan
had maintained secret contacts and concluded mutually beneficial
agreements throughout that entire period. The 1991 Madrid Conference led
to public bilateral talks, culminating in a formal treaty (1994) in which
both countries have undertaken to refrain from acts of belligerency, to
ensure that no threats of violence to the other will originate within
their territory, to endeavor to prevent terrorism and act together to
achieve security and cooperation in the Middle East by replacing military
preparedness with confidence-building measures. Other provisions include
agreed allocations from existing water resources, freedom of passage for
nationals of both countries, efforts to alleviate the refugee problem and
cooperation in the development of the Jordan Rift Valley. The
international boundary delineated in the treaty has replaced the 1949
cease-fire lines and is delimited with reference to the British Mandate boundary (1922-48).
With the ratification of the peace treaty, full diplomatic
relations were established and, since then, the relationship between
Israel and Jordan has been moving forward steadily.
The basis for implementation
of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty was established
with the signing and ratification of 15 bilateral
agreements in economic, scientific and cultural
spheres. These treaties are to serve as
the foundation of peaceful relations between
Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
The most significant expression of the peaceful
relations is QIZ. (Qualifying Industrial
Zones) which enables Jordan, via cooperation
with Israel, to export to the U.S. quota-free
and tariff-free commodities worth some $200
million. Israel is also cooperating with
Jordan in two agricultural projects and in
II, who succeeded his father in March 1999, visited Israel in April
2000. Following the outbreak of Palestinian
violence (September 2000) in the territories, relations with Jordan
cooled and Jordan recalled its ambassador.
In June 2003, King Abdullah
II hosted a summit in Aqaba with President Bush and with Prime Ministers Sharon and Abu-Mazen. In April
2004, King Abdullah II visited Prime Minister Sharon at his residence in the Negev.
A joint Israeli-Jordanian exercise to practice responding
to pollution in the Red Sea was staged on November 22, 2004, in the
Eilat-Aqaba Bay. Israel sent 14 ships, members of the water-pollution-unit
in Eilat, and workers of the Environment
Ministry to participate.
In 2005, bilateral cooperation
increased as officials met to discuss a variety
of issues including cooperation in fighting
the spread of bird flu. Jordanian exports
to Israel grew and Jordan’s
ambassador returned to Israel after
a five-year absence to protest Israel’s
policies in the territories.
American based company Noble Energy inked a deal with Jordanian National Electric Power Company (NEPCO) in late 2014 to supply Jordan with $15 billion in gas from Israeli oil fields over a 15 year period. Noble Energy owns 39% of the Israeli Leviathan oil field, located off of the coast of Israel in the Mediterranean Sea about 80 miles west of Haifa. Jordan will receive the gas through a terminal that will be opened in mid 2015. Jordanian officials are skeptical about relying on foreign sources for so much of their oil needs; according to the chair of the Jordanian Senate Energy Committee "Jordan should focus on local resources. We should never be dependent on external resources".
Senior Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian representatives signed a $900 million water sharing agreement in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on December 9, 2013, that was heralded as a milestone of cooperation between all parties involved. The agreement was made official at The World Bank Headquarters and was signed by H.E. Minister Silvan Shalom for Israel, H.E. Minister Hazim El-Naser for Jordan and H.E. Minister Shaddad Attilifor for the Palestinian Authority. Within the MoU are three major regional water sharing initiatives that will support the management of scarce water resources in the region and contribute to the development and discovery of new water resources. The agreement includes plans for the construction of a pipeline connecting the Red Sea and the Dead Sea and an 80 million cubic meter sea water desalination plant in Aqaba on the Red Sea to provide water that will be shared between the three represented entities. Israel will buy half of this desalinated water at cost, to be shared with the Palestinians, and the rest will be sent to Jordan. The Red Sea and the Dead Sea will be linked by a pipeline and water from the Red Sea will be pumped into the Dead Sea, because the Dead Sea has been found to be receding at a rate of one meter per year. The agreement also provides for increased sales of water to Jordan from Israel's Like Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee, beyond the amount specified in the 1994 peace agreement. All parties involved finalized the agreement on February 26, 2015, and in March 2016 it was announced that the pipeline should begin operating in 2017.
Following tense weeks of riots in Jerusalem surrounding access to the Temple Mount and the Al-Aksa Mosque, on November 1 2014 Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met in secret with Jordanian King Abdullah II in Jordan's capital city of Amman. During the meeting Netanyahu and King Abdullah discussed security at the Temple Mount and the Al-Aksa Mosque: members of the Jordanian Waqf Authority are stationed at the Al-Aksa Mosque and help provide security. The purpose of this meeting was to coordinate security measures at the holy site between the Jordainain Waqf Authority and the IDF. A few days after the meeting, Prime Minister Netanyahu called King Abdullah and assured him that the Jordanian special status at the Temple Mount will not change due to recent developments. Both leaders called for an immediate cessation of late 2014's violence surrounding access to the Temple Mount. Following this meeting, US Secretary of State John Kerry met with the two leaders in Jordan and stated that everyone involved was interested in de-escalating the situation.
In response to violence at the Temple Mount, Jordan recalled their ambassador from Israel on Wednesday November 5, 2014, for the first time since Jordan and Israel established diplomatic relations in 1994. The streets of Jordan filled with protestors on November 6 and 7, calling for the government to scrap its peace deal with the Israelis in light of the recent tensions surrounding the Al-Aksa Mosque. Sheikh Hamam, the leader of the government opposition Muslim Brotherhood party called for the destruction of the Israeli embassy in Jordan "along with everyone in it". Three months later, in early February 2015, Jordanian officials announced that they would be sending their ambassador back to Israel, due to calmed tensions surrounding access to the Temple Mount.
The Islamic State brutally murdered captured Jordanian Pilot Moaz al-Kasasbeh by burning him alive in a cage in January 2015, and released the video footage of the killing in February. Jordan responded with swift justice in the form of air strikes and other displays of their military capabilities, and Israeli officials used the opportunity to forge closer ties with Jordan. The day after the release of the execution video, Prime Minister Netanyahu called Jordanian King Abdullah and expressed his sincere condolences, calling al-Kasabeh's killing “barbaric cruelty.”
Israel gifted Jordan a fleet of U.S. supplied Cobra combat helicopters in July 2015, in a sale that was approved and facilitated by the United States. Israeli security officials confirmed that Jordan would receive approximately 16 of the helicopters, primarilly to provide border security. These helicopters have been added to Jordan's fleet of 25 Cobra helicopters currently in service.
In September 2015 Israel announced plans to construct a fence along the Israel-Jordan border, to combat the flow of refugees fleeing Syria and other neighboring countries. Netanyahu stated during a press conference that, “we have seen today what happens when countries lose control of their borders.”
The Israel-Jordan Committee for Security and Transportation met on October 27, 2015, to discuss the beginings of the “Jordan Gate” project. The project will be a joint industrial zone encompassing factories on the Jordanian side and a logistical and shipping complex on the Israeli side approximately six kilometers from the Jordan River crossing. In addition to deepening economic collaboration between Israel and Jordan, this project is going to create thousands of job opportunities for residents.
One hundred and seventy two Jordanians began work in Eilat hotels in November 2015, strengthening economic and tourism ties between the two countries. A cooperation agreement reached between Israel and Jordan in June 2014, after three years of negotiations with 10 Israeli ministries, provided for the hiring of up to 1,500 Jordanians in the Israeli tourism industry who will then return to their homes across the border following their shifts. Five hundred Jordanian workers were crossing the border to work in Eilat hotels by mid-December 2015, and by mid-2016 it is expected that up to 1,300 Jordanians will be employed in the Israeli tourism industry. These workers treck two-hours to and from work each day, but higher pay and benefits in Israel compared to Jordan make it worthwhile. It was announced on April 6, 2015, that Israeli authorities would allow an additional 500 Jordanians to cross the border daily and work at Israeli hotels in Eilat.
Pilots from the Royal Jordanian Air Force participated in training with the Israeli Air Force during a “working visit” to Israel during December 2015. The trip was not publicized by either country, and news of the collaboration was only released following the conclusion of the visit. A Jordanian pilot was discharged from their Air Force after he reportedly did not wish to participate in the training and raised a commotion about working with Israelis.
Since 2009 Israel has seen a dramatic increase in the number and percentage of tourists visiting from Arab countries, signaling a warming of relations between Israel and the moderate Arab world despite the looming possibility of a nuclear Iran. Over 250,000 individuals have come to visit Israel since 2009 from Arab and majority Muslim countries, including 81,000 individuals from Jordan. Other Arab countries that contributed to this increased tourism in Israel are Indonesia (124,000 tourists), Malaysia (23,483), Saudi Arabia (38), The United Arab Emirates (168), and Qatar and Oman (147).
Israel and Jordan have formed a mutually beneficial relationship following 1994's formal treaty between the two countries. The total trade in 2013 between Israel and Jordan amounted to $366 million, which shows that the relationship is going strong 20 years after the initial treaty.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
Migdalovitz, “Israel: Background and
Relations with the United States,” DC:
Congressional Research Service, (July 26, 2006),
Ghazal, Mohammad. “Israel gas deal will save Jordan $700 million annually,” The Jordan Times, (September 25, 2014);
Ravid, Barak/Lis, Jonathan. “Netanyahu assures Jordanian King Abdullah: Temple mount status quo won't change,” Haaretz, (November 6, 2014);
“Kerry, in Jordan, tries to ease tension over Jerusalem holy site,” LA Times, (November 14 2014);
“Israel sees sharp rise in tourists from Arab states,” Ynet News, (November 16 2014);
Labott, Elise. “Israel bolsters ties to Jordan as ISIS looms,” CNN, (February 6, 2015);
Al-Khalidi, Suleiman. “Jordan, Israel agree to $90 million red sea-dead sea project,” Reuters, (February 26, 2015);
“Israeli cobras gifted to Jordan for border security,” Ynet News, (July 23, 2015);
“Israel-Jordanian joint committee convened to advance 'Jordan gate' project,” IMRA, (October 28, 2015);
Levy-Stein, Revital. “172 Jordanians Start Working in Eilat Hotels,” Haaretz, (November 5, 2015)
Ben Solomon, Ariel. “Israel-Egypt look to increase tourism ties; Jordan guest worker program progresses,” Jerusalem Post, (December 1, 2015)
“Jordanian air force pilots pay 'working visit' to Israel,” Times of Israel, (December 17, 2015);
Cohen, Hedy. “Israel-Jordan gas pipeline to begin operating in 2017,” Globes, (March 10, 2016);
“Israel to hire 500 Jordanian day workers for Eilat hotels,”Albawaba Business, (April 6, 2016);