India and Israel established full diplomatic relations in 1992 and since then the bilateral relationship between the two countries has blossomed at the economic, military, agricultural and political levels. Both countries see themselves as isolated democracies threatened by neighbors that train, finance and encourage terrorism, therefore both countries also view their cooperative relationship as a strategic imperative.
Relations between Jerusalem and New Delhi were not always warm. Although both countries gained their independence from the United Kingdom within months of each other, they found themselves headed in pointedly different directions for nearly four decades - India as a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement that maintained close relations to the Arab world and the Soviet Union; Israel which linked its future to close ties with the United States and Western Europe.
India's large Muslim population was another major obstacle to building a relationship with Israel, as India feared that close relations with the Jewish State might somehow radicalize its Muslim citizens - numbering more than 100 million - and hurt its relations with the Arab world.
Although India publicly kept a distance from Israel until the late 1980's, there was in fact a great deal of bilateral activities between the two countries in the preceding years. India extended de-jure recognition to Israel in 1950 and allowed Israel to maintain a consulate in Mumbai (Bombay) to facilitate the voluntary immigration of thousands of Indian Jews to Israel. Thousands of Indians have also traveled to Israel for special courses and training in agricultural technology and community development. Israel also provided humanitarian relief to India. Following a devastating earthquake in 2001, Israel sent an IDF emergency response delegation to India for two weeks to provide humanitarian relief and treatment for the victims.
Since firmly establishing diplomtic ties, both countries have benefited immensely. India has become one of Israels largest trading partners, many of the worlds leading high-tech companies in Israel and India are forging joint ventures that are successfully competing in the tough international marketplace. As of July 2013, India-Israel trade had risen to approximately $6 billion a year, far surpassing the the modest $200 million level it was at in 1992.
In 2006, Israeli and Indian ministers of agriculture signed a long-term cooperation and training deal, which has since been supervised by field experts from Mashav, an international development program of Israel’s Foreign Ministry. In 2008, the two nations started a $50 million shared agriculture fund, focusing on dairy, farming technology and micro-irrigation. In 2011, India and Israel signed an agreement to foster cooperation on urban water systems, which came after more than a decade of joint research, development and shared investment in the countries’ respective water technologies.
Israel has also become a major supplier of key military technology to India, bringing radar and surveillance systems, electronic components for military aircraft, and counterterrorism methods and technologies to help India defend itself. In 2011, India's elite Cobra Commando's began using the Israeli X-95 assualt rifle for their counter-insurgency operations and in January 2012 the Indian and Israeli governments setup an official counter-terrorism coordination strategy to boost collaboration in this military field.
In May 2013, Israel announced that it will help India diversify and raise the yeild of its fruit and vegetable crops by offering the country advanced technology and know-how. Israel will help set up 28 centers of excellence across India focussed on specific fruit and vegetable crops. "We congratulate India on being self-sufficient in food. Feeding 1.2 billion people is not an easy task. But with improvement in technology, a lot more can be achieved," Daniel Carmon, head of MASHAV, Israel's Agency for International Development Cooperation, said.
In June 2013, a delegation of 16 high-ranking Indian officials of the water authorities of Rajasthan, Karnataka, Goa and Haryana came to Israel and visited wastewater treatment plants, met with some of Israel’s leading environmentalists and agronomists and listened to explanations of some of the newest technologies for water management. "In India, we have a major crisis of water," said Rajeev Jain, an assistant engineer in the water department of Rajasthan. "Our problem is the same that Israel faced. But Israel is an expert at successfully implementing technologies that we aren’t able to implement. So we have come here to understand which technologies they use and how they manage these things."
The visit was jointly arranged by the governments of India and Israel and managed by the Weitz Center for Development Studies and Israel NewTech, the national sustainable water and energy program of Israel’s Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor.