India and Israel established full diplomatic relations in 1992 and since then the bilateral relationship between the two countries has blossomed at the economic, military, agricultural and political levels. Both countries see themselves as isolated democracies threatened by neighbors that train, finance and encourage terrorism, therefore both countries also view their cooperative relationship as a strategic imperative.
Relations between Jerusalem and New Delhi were not always warm. Although both countries gained their independence from the United Kingdom within months of each other, they found themselves headed in pointedly different directions for nearly four decades - India as a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement that maintained close relations to the Arab world and the Soviet Union; Israel which linked its future to close ties with the United States and Western Europe.
India's large Muslim population was another major obstacle to building a relationship with Israel, as India feared that close relations with the Jewish State might somehow radicalize its Muslim citizens - numbering more than 100 million - and hurt its relations with the Arab world.
Although India publicly kept a distance from Israel until the late 1980's, there was in fact a great deal of bilateral activities between the two countries in the preceding years. India extended de-jure recognition to Israel in 1950 and allowed Israel to maintain a consulate in Mumbai (Bombay) to facilitate the voluntary immigration of thousands of Indian Jews to Israel. Thousands of Indians have also traveled to Israel for special courses and training in agricultural technology and community development. Israel also provided humanitarian relief to India. Following a devastating earthquake in 2001, Israel sent an IDF emergency response delegation to India for two weeks to provide humanitarian relief and treatment for the victims.
In November 2002, the head of Israel's space research program, Colonel Avi Hareven, and the head of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Dr. K. Kasturirangan, signed an agreement on space cooperation between the two countries.
Since firmly establishing diplomtic ties, both countries have benefited immensely. India has become one of Israels largest trading partners, many of the worlds leading high-tech companies in Israel and India are forging joint ventures that are successfully competing in the tough international marketplace. Trade and cooperation between the countries now centers primarily on security-related deals and aid in areas such as agriculture and water desalination. As of July 2013, India-Israel trade had risen to approximately $6 billion a year, far surpassing the the modest $200 million level it was at in 1992.
In 2006, Israeli and Indian ministers of agriculture signed a long-term cooperation and training deal, which has since been supervised by field experts from Mashav, an international development program of Israel’s Foreign Ministry. In 2008, the two nations started a $50 million shared agriculture fund, focusing on dairy, farming technology and micro-irrigation. This constituted the Agriculture Cooperation Agreement. In 2011, India and Israel signed an agreement to foster cooperation on urban water systems, which came after more than a decade of joint research, development and shared investment in the countries’ respective water technologies.
In May 2013, Israel announced that it will help India diversify and raise the yeild of its fruit and vegetable crops by offering the country advanced technology and know-how. Israel will help set up 28 centers of excellence across India focussed on specific fruit and vegetable crops. "We congratulate India on being self-sufficient in food. Feeding 1.2 billion people is not an easy task. But with improvement in technology, a lot more can be achieved," Daniel Carmon, head of MASHAV, Israel's Agency for International Development Cooperation, said.
In June 2013, a delegation of 16 high-ranking Indian officials of the water authorities of Rajasthan, Karnataka, Goa and Haryana came to Israel and visited wastewater treatment plants, met with some of Israel’s leading environmentalists and agronomists and listened to explanations of some of the newest technologies for water management. "In India, we have a major crisis of water," said Rajeev Jain, an assistant engineer in the water department of Rajasthan. "Our problem is the same that Israel faced. But Israel is an expert at successfully implementing technologies that we aren’t able to implement. So we have come here to understand which technologies they use and how they manage these things."
The visit was jointly arranged by the governments of India and Israel and managed by the Weitz Center for Development Studies and Israel NewTech, the national sustainable water and energy program of Israel’s Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor.
The key to the growing India-Israel ties, however, is in the realm of security and defense. In the early 2000s, the Indian army declared its intention to implement a modernization program to which resources of tens of billions of dollars would be allocated. Since then, defense deals with Israel have grown exponentially - today, India is the number one export target of Israel’s defense industries.
Israel has sold radar and surveillance systems as well as electronic components for military aircraft and and has helped India defense itself through training in counterterrorism methods. In November 2011, India's elit Cobra Commando unit bought more than 1,000 units of the Israeli X-95 assualt rifle to use in counterinsurgency operation. Also in 2011, India placed orders for four advanced Israeli Phalcon AWACS planes (airborne warning and control systems) which are capable of detecting hostile aircraft, cruise missiles and other incoming aerial threat far before ground-based radars.
In January 2012, India and Israel stepped up their counter-terrorism coordination strategy in the wake of Indian External Affairs Minister SM Krishna's visit to the Jewish state. While in Israel, Krishna met with top Israeli government and defense leaders and agreed to work to boost their counter-terrorism cooperation. The two countries also signed an Extradition Treaty and a pact on Transfer of Sentenced Prisoners.
By March 2014, 10 Centres of Excellence operated throughout India offering free training sessions for farmers in efficient agricultural techniques using Israeli technological expertise and know-how. Vertical farming, drip irrigation and soil solarisation are some of what is taught at the centers. The 10 already operating focus on mangoes, pomegranates and citrus fruits and the idea is to expand to flowers, bee keeping and dairying, with 28 centers by 2015. Israeli Embassy spokesman Ohad Horsandi explained: "The idea is to transfer applied research and technologies to the farmers in various states across India. While Israel has already entered into agreement with seven state governments to set up these centres, the most successful model has been Haryana," in the northern part of the country.
During a July 2014 visit to Tel Aviv, Indian Defense Secretary Radha Krishna Mathur outlined his goals for Indo-Israeli defense cooperation. The Indian government requested an unspecified number of Sword Fish ground radar trackers, precision-guided artillery, unspecified missiles, and two AWACS units (in addition to the four ordered in 2005). Mathur was especially interested in the delivery of long-range anti-missile defense batteries for deployment aboard Indian naval ships. The project was announced in 2005, and originally scheduled for delivery in 2012.
Sources: Haaretz (November 11, 2002); Near East Report (February 3, 2003); India Today (November 7, 2011); Times of India (November 8, 2011); Voice of America (January 2012); Hindustan Times (January 11, 2012); Yahoo! News (May 27, 2013); New York Times (June 12, 2013); Hindu Business Line (July 7, 2013); Haaretz (February 22, 2014), Yahoo News (March 2, 2014), Defense News (July 3, 2014).