Draft Israel-Syria Peace Treaty
The following is a draft peace treaty presented by
the Clinton Administration to the Israeli and Syrian negotiators during
talks in West Virginia during the second week of January. Based on this
draft, it appears they have agreed to full diplomatic relations, open
border crossings, free trade and cooperation in the field of tourism.
Israel, wary of possible Syrian attempts to slow normalization, demanded
that a timetable be set for each step.
Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak's
office said January 13 what was published is ``a preliminary American
document which, as is stated in writing, has no binding force.'' A
day earlier, Barak said a framework for a peace treaty with Syria could be
reached within two months.
The Government of the State of Israel and the Government
of the Syrian Arab Republic:
Aiming at the achievement of a just, lasting and comprehensive peace in the
Middle East based on Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 and within
the framework of the peace process initiated at Madrid on 31 October 1991;
Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of
the United Nations and recognizing their right and obligation to live in
peace with each other, as well as with all states, within secure and
Desiring to establish mutual respect and to develop honorable, friendly and
good neighborly relations;
Resolved to establish permanent peace between them in accordance with this
Have agreed as follows: Establishment of Peace and Security within
Recognized Boundaries.1. The state of war between Israel and Syria
(hereinafter "the Parties") is hereby terminated and peace is
established between them. The Parties will maintain normal, peaceful
relations as set out in Article III below.
2. The permanent secure and recognized international boundary between
Israel and Syria is the boundary set forth in Article II below. The
location of the boundary has been commonly agreed (Syrian position: and is
based on the June 4, 1967 line) (Israeli position: taking into account
security and other vital interests of the Parties as well as legal
considerations of both sides). Israel will (S: withdraw) (I: relocate) all
its armed forces (S: and civilians) behind this boundary in accordance with
Annex -- of this Treaty. (S: Thereafter, each Party will exercise its full
sovereignty on its side of the international boundary, including as agreed
in this Treaty.)
3. To enhance the security of both Parties, agreed security measures will
be implemented in accordance with Article IV below.
4. The time line at Annex -- sets forth an agreed schedule for synchronized
implementation of this and the other Articles of this Treaty. International
Boundary1. The international boundary between Israel and Syria is as shown
on the mapping materials and co-ordinates specified in Annex. This boundary
is the permanent, secure and recognized international boundary between
Israel and Syria and supercedes any previous boundary or line of
demarcation between them.
2. The Parties will respect the inviolability of this boundary and of each
other's territory, territorial waters and airspace.
3. A Joint Boundary Commission is hereby established. Its functions and
activities are set out in Annex. Normal Peaceful Relations1. The Parties
will apply between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations
and the principles of international law governing relations among states in
time of peace. In particular:
a. they recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty, territorial
integrity and political independence and right to live in peace within
secure and recognized boundaries; and
b. they will establish and develop friendly and good neighborly relations,
will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or indirectly,
against each other, will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and
development in their region and will settle all disputes between them by
2. The Parties will establish full diplomatic and consular relations,
including the exchange of resident ambassadors.
3. The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest in honorable and good
neighborly relations based on mutual respect and for this purpose will:
a. promote beneficial bilateral economic and trade relations including by
enabling the free and unimpeded flow of people, goods and services between
the two countries.
b. remove all discriminatory barriers to normal economic relations,
terminate economic boycotts directed at the other Party, repeal all
discriminatory legislation, and cooperate in terminating boycotts against
either Party by third parties.
c. promote relations between them in the sphere of transportation. In this
regard, the Parties will open and maintain roads and international border
crossings between the two countries, cooperate in the development of rail
links, grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the
other or vessels or cargoes destined for or coming from that Party, and
enter into normal civil aviation relations.
d. establish normal postal, telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and
cable communications and television relay services by cable, radio and
satellite between them on a non-discriminatory basis in accordance with
relevant international conventions and regulations; and
e. promote cooperation in the field of tourism in order to facilitate and
encourage mutual tourism and tourism from third countries.
Annex -- sets forth the agreed procedures for establishing and developing
these relations, (I: including the schedule for the attainment of relevant
agreements as well as arrangements concerning the Israelis and Israeli
communities in areas from which Israeli forces will be relocated pursuant
to Article I).
4. The Parties undertake to ensure mutual enjoyment by each other's
citizens of due process of law within their respective legal systems and
before their courts.
(Notes (I) Components of normal peaceful relations which require further
discussion: cultural relations; environment; interconnection of electricity
grids; energy; health and medicine; and agriculture.
(II) Other possible areas for consideration: combating crime and drugs;
anti-incitement cooperation; human rights; places of historical and
religious significance and memorials; legal cooperation in the search for
missing persons. SecurityA. Security Arrangements Recognizing the
importance of security for both Parties as an important element of
permanent peace and stability, the Parties will employ the following
security arrangements to build mutual confidence in the implementation of
this Treaty and to provide for the security needs of both Parties:
1. Areas of limitation of forces and capabilities, including limitations on
their readiness and activities, and on armaments, weapon system and
military infrastructure, as described in Annex ---.
2. Within the areas of limitation of forces and capabilities, the
establishment of a demilitarized zone (I: encompassing both the area from
which Israeli forces will be relocated and the existing Area of Separation
established under the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian
Forces of 31 May 1974) (S: of equal scope on both sides of the border). As
described in Annex -------, no military forces, armaments, weapon systems,
military capabilities, or military infrastructure will be introduced into
the demilitarized zone by either Party and only a limited civil police
presence may be deployed in the area. (I: Both sides agree not to fly over
the demilitarized zone without special arrangements.)
3. Early warning capabilities, including an early warning ground station on
Mt. Hermon (I: with an effective Israeli presence) (S: operated by the
United States and France under their total auspices and responsibilities).
Arrangements for the unimpeded, efficient and continuous operation of this
station are as detailed in Annex -------.
4. A monitoring, inspection and verification mechanism (I: composed of the
two Parties and a multinational component and including on-site technical
means) (S: through an international presence), to monitor and supervise the
implementation of the security arrangements.
Details regarding these security arrangements, including their scope,
positioning and nature, as well as other security arrangements, are
specified in Annex -----.
B. Other Security Measures
As further steps to ensure a permanent cessation of hostilities of any form
between the Parties or from their territories against each other.
1. Each Party undertakes to refrain from cooperating with any third party
in a hostile alliance of a military character and will ensure that
territory under its control is not used by any military forces of a third
party (including their equipment and armaments) in circumstances that would
adversely affect the security of the other Party.
2. Each Party undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting,
assisting or participating in any acts or threats of violence against the
other Party, its citizens or their property wherever located, and will take
effective measures to ensure that no such acts occur from, or are supported
by individuals on, its territory or territory under its control. In this
regard, without prejudice to the basic rights of freedom of expression and
association, each Party will take necessary and effective measures to
prevent the entry, presence and operation in its territory of any group or
organization, and their infrastructure, which threatens the security of the
other Party by the use of, or incitement to the use of, violent means.
3. Both Parties recognize that international terrorism in all its forms
threatens the security of all nations and therefore share a common interest
in the enhancement of international cooperative efforts to deal with this
C. Cooperation and Liaison in Security Matters
The Parties will establish a direct liaison and coordination mechanism
between them as described in Annex ----- to facilitate implementation of
the security provisions in this Treaty. Its responsibilities will include:
direct and real-time communication on security issues, minimization of
friction along the international border, addressing any problems arising
during the implementation process, helping to prevent errors or
misinterpretations, and maintaining direct and continuous contacts with the
monitoring, inspection and verification mechanism. Water1. The Parties
recognize that full resolution of all water issues between them constitutes
a fundamental element in ensuring a stable and lasting peace. (S: Based on
relevant international principles and practices), the Parties have agreed
to establish (I: arrangements that will ensure the continuation of Israel's
current use in quantity and quality of all) (S: mutually agreeable
arrangements with respect to water quantities and quality from) the surface
and underground waters in the areas from which Israeli forces will (I:
relocate) (S: withdraw) pursuant to Article I, as detailed in Annex. (I:
The arrangements should include all necessary measures to prevent
contamination, pollution or depletion of the Kinneret/Tiberias and Upper
Jordan River and their sources.)
2. For the purposes of this Article and Annex, the Parties will establish
(I: a Joint Water Committee and a supervision and enforcement mechanism)
(S: a Joint Administrative Board). The composition, mandate and mode of
operations of the (I: Joint Water Committee and the supervision and
enforcement mechanism) (S: Joint Administrative Board) will be as detailed
3. The Parties have agreed to cooperate on water-related matters, as
detailed in Annex, (I: including ensuring the quantity and quality of water
allocated to Israel under other agreements concerning water originating in
Syria.) Rights and Obligations1. This Treaty does not affect and shall not
be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the
Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.
2. The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under
this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other Party and
independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.
3. The Parties will take all the necessary measures for the application in
their relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions to which
they are Parties, including the submission of appropriate notification to
the Secretary General of the United Nations and other depositories of such
conventions. They will also abstain from actions that would curtail the
rights of either Party to participate in international organizations to
which they belong in accordance with the governing provisions of those
4. The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with
5. Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter, in the event of a
conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty
and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will
be binding and implemented. LegislationThe Parties undertake to enact any
legislation necessary in order to implement the Treaty, and to repeal any
legislation that is inconsistent with the Treaty. Settlement of
DisputesDisputes between the Parties arising out of the interpretation or
application of the present Treaty shall be settled by negotiation. Final
Clauses1. This treaty shall be ratified by both Parties in conformity with
their respective constitutional procedures. It shall enter into force on
the exchange of instruments of ratification and shall supercede all
previous bilateral agreements between the Parties.
2. The Annexes and other attachments attached to this Treaty shall
constitute integral parts thereof.
3. The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the United
Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102
of the Charter of the United Nations.
DONE THIS DAY ------ IN -------- IN THE ENGLISH, HEBREW AND ARABIC
LANGUAGES, ALL LANGUAGES BEING EQUALLY AUTHENTIC. IN CASE OF ANY DIVERGENCE
OF INTERPRETATION, THE ENGLISH TEXT WILL BE AUTHORITATIVE
AP, (January 13, 2000)