Declaration of Principles On Interim Self-Government Arrangements ("Oslo Accords")
(September 13, 1993)
The Government of the State of Israel and the
PLO team (the "Palestinian Delegation"), representing
the Palestinian people, agree that it is time to put an end to decades
of confrontation and conflict, recognize their mutual legitimate and
political rights, and strive to live in peaceful coexistence and mutual
dignity and security and achieve a just, lasting and comprehensive peace
settlement and historic reconciliation through the agreed political
Accordingly, the, two sides agree to the following principles:
AIM OF THE NEGOTIATIONS
aim of the Israeli-Palestinian negotiations within the current Middle
East peace process is, among other things, to establish a Palestinian
Interim Self-Government Authority, the elected Council (the "Council"),
for the Palestinian people in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, for
a transitional period not exceeding five years, leading to a permanent
settlement based on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.
It is understood that the interim arrangements are
an integral part of the whole peace process and that the negotiations
on the permanent status will lead to the implementation of Security
Council Resolutions 242 and 338.
FRAMEWORK FOR THE INTERIM PERIOD
agreed framework for the interim period is set forth in this Declaration
- In order that the Palestinian people in the West
Bank and Gaza Strip may govern themselves according to democratic
principles, direct, free and general political elections will be
held for the Council under agreed supervision and international
observation, while the Palestinian police will ensure public order.
- An agreement will be concluded on the exact mode
and conditions of the elections in accordance with the protocol
attached as Annex I, with the goal of holding the elections not
later than nine months after the entry into force of this Declaration
- These elections will constitute a significant interim
preparatory step toward the realization of the legitimate rights
of the Palestinian people and their just requirements.
the Council will cover West Bank and Gaza Strip territory, except for
issues that will be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations.
The two sides view the West Bank and the Gaza Strip as a single territorial
unit, whose integrity will be preserved during the interim period.
TRANSITIONAL PERIOD AND PERMANENT STATUS NEGOTIATIONS
- The five-year transitional period will begin upon
the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
- Permanent status negotiations will commence as
soon as possible, but not later than the beginning of the third
year of the interim period, between the Government of Israel and
the Palestinian people representatives.
- It is understood that these negotiations shall
cover remaining issues, including: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements,
security arrangements, borders, relations and cooperation with other
neighbors, and other issues of common interest.
- The two parties agree that the outcome of the permanent
status negotiations should not be prejudiced or preempted by agreements
reached for the interim period.
PREPARATORY TRANSFER OF POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
- Upon the entry into force of this Declaration of
Principles and the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and the Jericho
area, a transfer of authority from the Israeli military government
and its Civil Administration to the authorised Palestinians for
this task, as detailed herein, will commence. This transfer of authority
will be of a preparatory nature until the inauguration of the Council.
- Immediately after the entry into force of this
Declaration of Principles and the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip
and Jericho area, with the view to promoting economic development
in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, authority will be transferred to
the Palestinians on the following spheres: education and culture,
health, social welfare, direct taxation, and tourism. The Palestinian
side will commence in building the Palestinian police force, as
agreed upon. Pending the inauguration of the Council, the two parties
may negotiate the transfer of additional powers and responsibilities,
as agreed upon.
- The Israeli and Palestinian delegations will negotiate
an agreement on the interim period (the "Interim Agreement")
- The Interim Agreement shall specify, among other
things, the structure of the Council, the number of its members,
and the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the Israeli
military government and its Civil Administration to the Council.
The Interim Agreement shall also specify the Council's executive
authority, legislative authority in accordance with Article IX below,
and the independent Palestinian judicial organs.
- The Interim Agreement shall include arrangements,
to be implemented upon the inauguration of the Council, for the
assumption by the Council of all of the powers and responsibilities
transferred previously in accordance with Article VI above.
- In order to enable the Council to promote economic
growth, upon its inauguration, the Council will establish, among
other things, a Palestinian Electricity Authority, a Gaza Sea Port
Authority, a Palestinian Development Bank, a Palestinian Export
Promotion Board, a Palestinian Environmental Authority, a Palestinian
Land Authority and a Palestinian Water Administration Authority,
and any other Authorities agreed upon, in accordance with the Interim
Agreement that will specify their powers and responsibilities.
- After the inauguration of the Council, the Civil
Administration will be dissolved, and the Israeli military government
will be withdrawn.
PUBLIC ORDER AND SECURITY
order to guarantee public order and internal security for the Palestinians
of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Council will establish a strong
police force, while Israel will continue to carry the responsibility
for defending against external threats, as well as the responsibility
for overall security of Israelis for the purpose of safeguarding their
internal security and public order.
LAWS AND MILITARY ORDERS
- The Council will be empowered to legislate, in
accordance with the Interim Agreement, within all authorities transferred
- Both parties will review jointly laws and military
orders presently in force in remaining spheres.
JOINT ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN LIAISON COMMITTEE
order to provide for a smooth implementation of this Declaration of
Principles and any subsequent agreements pertaining to the interim period,
upon the entry into force of this Declaration of Principles, a Joint
Israeli-Palestinian Liaison Committee will be established in order to
deal with issues requiring coordination, other issues of common interest,
ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN COOPERATION IN ECONOMIC FIELDS
Recognizing the mutual benefit of cooperation in promoting
the development of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel, upon the
entry into force of this Declaration of Principles, an Israeli-Palestinian
Economic Cooperation Committee will be established in order to develop
and implement in a cooperative manner the programs identified in the
protocols attached as Annex III and Annex
LIAISON AND COOPERATION WITH JORDAN AND EGYPT
two parties will invite the Governments of Jordan and Egypt to participate
in establishing further liaison and cooperation arrangements between
the Government of Israel and the Palestinian representatives, on the
one hand, and the Governments of Jordan and Egypt, on the other hand,
to promote cooperation between them. These arrangements will include
the constitution of a Continuing Committee that will decide by agreement
on the modalities of admission of persons displaced from the West Bank
and Gaza Strip in 1967, together with necessary measures to prevent
disruption and disorder. Other matters of common concern will be dealt
with by this Committee.
REDEPLOYMENT OF ISRAELI FORCES
- After the entry into force of this Declaration
of Principles, and not later than the eve of elections for the Council,
a redeployment of Israeli military forces in the West Bank and the
Gaza Strip will take place, in addition to withdrawal of Israeli
forces carried out in accordance with Article XIV.
- In redeploying its military forces, Israel will
be guided by the principle that its military forces should be redeployed
outside populated areas.
- Further redeployments to specified locations will
be gradually implemented commensurate with the assumption of responsibility
for public order and internal security by the Palestinian police
force pursuant to Article VIII above.
ISRAELI WITHDRAWAL FROM THE GAZA STRIP AND JERICHO AREA
Israel will withdraw from the Gaza Strip and Jericho
area, as detailed in the protocol attached as Annex
RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES
- Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation
of this Declaration of Principles. or any subsequent agreements
pertaining to the interim period, shall be resolved by negotiations
through the Joint Liaison Committee to be established pursuant to
Article X above.
- Disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations
may be resolved by a mechanism of conciliation to be agreed upon
by the parties.
- The parties may agree to submit to arbitration
disputes relating to the interim period, which cannot be settled
through conciliation. To this end, upon the agreement of both parties,
the parties will establish an Arbitration Committee.
ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN COOPERATION CONCERNING REGIONAL PROGRAMS
Both parties view the multilateral working groups as
an appropriate instrument for promoting a "Marshall Plan",
the regional programs and other programs, including special programs
for the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as indicated in the protocol attached
as Annex IV .
- This Declaration of Principles will enter into
force one month after its signing.
- All protocols annexed to this Declaration of Principles
and Agreed Minutes pertaining thereto shall be regarded as an integral
Done at Washington, D.C., this thirteenth day
of September, 1993.
For the Government of Israel
For the P.L.O.
The United States of America
The Russian Federation
PROTOCOL ON THE MODE AND CONDITIONS OF ELECTIONS
- Palestinians of Jerusalem who live there will have
the right to participate in the election process, according to an
agreement between the two sides.
- In addition, the election agreement should cover,
among other things, the following issues:
- the system of elections;
- the mode of the agreed supervision and international
observation and their personal composition; and
- rules and regulations regarding election campaign,
including agreed arrangements for the organizing of mass media,
and the possibility of licensing a broadcasting and TV station.
- The future status of displaced Palestinians who
were registered on 4th June 1967 will not be prejudiced because
they are unable to participate in the election process due to practical
PROTOCOL ON WITHDRAWAL OF ISRAELI FORCES FROM THE GAZA STRIP AND JERICHO
- The two sides will conclude and sign within two
months from the date of entry into force of this Declaration of
Principles, an agreement on the withdrawal of Israeli military forces
from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. This agreement will include
comprehensive arrangements to apply in the Gaza Strip and the Jericho
area subsequent to the Israeli withdrawal.
- Israel will implement an accelerated and scheduled
withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho
area, beginning immediately with the signing of the agreement on
the Gaza Strip and Jericho area and to be completed within a period
not exceeding four months after the signing of this agreement.
- The above agreement will include, among other things:
- Arrangements for a smooth and peaceful transfer
of authority from the Israeli military government and its Civil
Administration to the Palestinian representatives.
- Structure, powers and responsibilities of the
Palestinian authority in these areas, except: external security,
settlements, Israelis, foreign relations, and other mutually
- Arrangements for the assumption of internal
security and public order by the Palestinian police force consisting
of police officers recruited locally and from abroad holding
Jordanian passports and Palestinian documents issued by Egypt).
Those who will participate in the Palestinian police force coming
from abroad should be trained as police and police officers.
- A temporary international or foreign presence,
as agreed upon.
- Establishment of a joint Palestinian-Israeli
Coordination and Cooperation Committee for mutual security purposes.
- An economic development and stabilization program,
including the establishment of an Emergency Fund, to encourage
foreign investment, and financial and economic support. Both
sides will coordinate and cooperate jointly and unilaterally
with regional and international parties to support these aims.
- Arrangements for a safe passage for persons
and transportation between the Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
- The above agreement will include arrangements for
coordination between both parties regarding passages:
- Gaza - Egypt; and
- Jericho - Jordan.
- The offices responsible for carrying out the powers
and responsibilities of the Palestinian authority under this Annex
II and Article VI of the Declaration of Principles will be located
in the Gaza Strip and in the Jericho area pending the inauguration
of the Council.
- Other than these agreed arrangements, the status
of the Gaza Strip and Jericho area will continue to be an integral
part of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and will not be changed in
the interim period.
PROTOCOL ON ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN COOPERATION IN ECONOMIC
AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
The two sides agree to establish an Israeli-Palestinian continuing Committee
for Economic Cooperation, focusing, among other things, on the following:
- Cooperation in the field of water, including a
Water Development Program prepared by experts from both sides, which
will also specify the mode of cooperation in the management of water
resources in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and will include proposals
for studies and plans on water rights of each party, as well as
on the equitable utilization of joint water resources for implementation
in and beyond the interim period.
- Cooperation in the field of electricity, including
an Electricity Development Program, which will also specify the
mode of cooperation for the production, maintenance, purchase and
sale of electricity resources.
- Cooperation in the field of energy, including an
Energy Development Program, which will provide for the exploitation
of oil and gas for industrial purposes, particularly in the Gaza
Strip and in the Negev, and will encourage further joint exploitation
of other energy resources. This Program may also provide for the
construction of a Petrochemical industrial complex in the Gaza Strip
and the construction of oil and gas pipelines.
- Cooperation in the field of finance, including
a Financial Development and Action Program for the encouragement
of international investment in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,
and in Israel, as well as the establishment of a Palestinian Development
- Cooperation in the field of transport and communications,
including a Program, which will define guidelines for the establishment
of a Gaza Sea Port Area, and will provide for the establishing of
transport and communications lines to and from the West Bank and
the Gaza Strip to Israel and to other countries. In addition, this
Program will provide for carrying out the necessary construction
of roads, railways, communications lines, etc.
- Cooperation in the field of trade, including studies,
and Trade Promotion Programs, which will encourage local, regional
and inter-regional trade, as well as a feasibility study of creating
free trade zones in the Gaza Strip and in Israel, mutual access
to these zones, and cooperation in other areas related to trade
- Cooperation in the field of industry, including
Industrial Development Programs, which will provide for the establishment
of joint Israeli- Palestinian Industrial Research and Development
Centers, will promote Palestinian-Israeli joint ventures, and provide
guidelines for cooperation in the textile, food, pharmaceutical,
electronics, diamonds, computer and science-based industries.
- A program for cooperation in, and regulation of,
labor relations and cooperation in social welfare issues.
- A Human Resources Development and Cooperation Plan,
providing for joint Israeli-Palestinian workshops and seminars,
and for the establishment of joint vocational training centers,
research institutes and data banks.
- An Environmental Protection Plan, providing for
joint and/or coordinated measures in this sphere.
- A program for developing coordination and cooperation
in the field of communication and media.
- Any other programs of mutual interest.
PROTOCOL ON ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN COOPERATION CONCERNING
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
- The two sides will cooperate in the context of
the multilateral peace efforts in promoting a Development Program
for the region, including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, to be
initiated by the G-7. The parties will request the G-7 to seek the
participation in this program of other interested states, such as
members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development,
regional Arab states and institutions, as well as members of the
- The Development Program will consist of two elements:
- an Economic Development Program for the 'West
Bank and the Gaza Strip.
- a Regional Economic Development Program.
- The Economic Development Program for the West
Bank and the Gaza strip will consist of the following elements:
- A Social Rehabilitation Program, including
a Housing and Construction Program.
- A Small and Medium Business Development
- An Infrastructure Development Program (water,
electricity, transportation and communications, etc.)
- A Human Resources Plan.
- Other programs.
- The Regional Economic Development Program may
consist of the following elements:
- The establishment of a Middle East Development
Fund, as a first step, and a Middle East Development Bank,
as a second step.
- The development of a joint Israeli-Palestinian-Jordanian
Plan for coordinated exploitation of the Dead Sea area.
- The Mediterranean Sea (Gaza) - Dead Sea
- Regional Desalinization and other water
- A regional plan for agricultural development,
including a coordinated regional effort for the prevention
- Interconnection of electricity grids.
- Regional cooperation for the transfer,
distribution and industrial exploitation of gas, oil and
other energy resources.
- A Regional Tourism, Transportation and
Telecommunications Development Plan.
- Regional cooperation in other spheres.
- The two sides will encourage the multilateral working
groups, and will coordinate towards their success. The two parties
will encourage intersessional activities, as well as pre-feasibility
and feasibility studies, within the various multilateral working
A. GENERAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND AGREEMENTS
Any powers and responsibilities transferred to the
Palestinians pursuant to the Declaration of Principles prior to the
inauguration of the Council will be subject to the same principles pertaining
to Article IV, as set out in these Agreed Minutes below.
B. SPECIFIC UNDERSTANDINGS AND AGREEMENTS
It is understood that:
- Jurisdiction of the Council will cover West Bank
and Gaza Strip territory, except for issues that will be negotiated
in the permanent status negotiations: Jerusalem, settlements, military
locations, and Israelis.
- The Council's jurisdiction will apply with regard
to the agreed powers, responsibilities, spheres and authorities
transferred to it.
Article VI (2)
is agreed that the transfer of authority will be as follows:
- The Palestinian side will inform the Israeli side
of the names of the authorised Palestinians who will assume the
powers, authorities and responsibilities that will be transferred
to the Palestinians according to the Declaration of Principles in
the following fields: education and culture, health, social welfare,
direct taxation, tourism, and any other authorities agreed upon.
- It is understood that the rights and obligations
of these offices will not be affected.
- Each of the spheres described above will continue
to enjoy existing budgetary allocations in accordance with arrangements
to be mutually agreed upon. These arrangements also will provide
for the necessary adjustments required in order to take into account
the taxes collected by the direct taxation office.
- Upon the execution of the Declaration of Principles,
the Israeli and Palestinian delegations will immediately commence
negotiations on a detailed plan for the transfer of authority on
the above offices in accordance with the above understandings.
Article VII (2)
Interim Agreement will also include arrangements for coordination and
Article VII (5)
The withdrawal of the military government will not
prevent Israel from exercising the powers and responsibilities not transferred
to the Council.
It is understood that the Interim Agreement will include
arrangements for cooperation and coordination between the two parties
in this regard. It is also agreed that the transfer of powers and responsibilities
to the Palestinian police will be accomplished in a phased manner, as
agreed in the Interim Agreement.
It is agreed that, upon the entry into force of the
Declaration of Principles, the Israeli and Palestinian delegations will
exchange the names of the individuals designated by them as members
of the Joint Israeli-Palestinian Liaison Committee.
It is further agreed that each side will have an equal
number of members in the Joint Committee. The Joint Committee will reach
decisions by agreement. The Joint Committee may add other technicians
and experts, as necessary. The Joint Committee will decide on the frequency
and place or places of its meetings.
It is understood that, subsequent to the Israeli withdrawal,
Israel will continue to be responsible for external security, and for
internal security and public order of settlements and Israelis. Israeli
military forces and civilians may continue to use roads freely within
the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area.
Done at Washington, D.C., this thirteenth day of September, 1993.
For the Government of Israel
For the P.L.O.
The United States of America
The Russian Federation
Ministry of Foreign Affairs