Introduction of the “Jewish Star”

(April 28, 1942)


In the autumn of 1942, Eichmann et al. started to plan the deportation of the Western European Jews. As Jews in those countries were not confined to ghettos, measures had to be taken to identify Jews and segregate them visually from the general population. One of the most important and infamous of these measures was the “Jewish Star” (Judenstern). It was introduced almost at the same time in the Netherlands, Belgium, and France, using the form of the star that was used since September 1941 in Germany. The Dutch “stars” were manufactured in the Lodz ghetto and distributed by the Jewish Council. Following is the official decree ordering the wearing of the star, signed by Raufer, the Senior SS and Police Officer and the General Commissioner for Security.


In accordance with Paragraph 45 of Order 138/41 of the Reich Commissioner for the Occupied Dutch Territories concerning public security, I order the following:

Par 1:

1)A Jew who appears in public is obliged to wear a Jewish star.

2)For the implementation of this order a Jew is everyone who was defined as a Jew according to order no. 189/40 concerning the registration of enterprises. Children under the age of six are not included in this order.

3)The Jewish star is a star with six corners, painted in black on yellow cloth the size of the palm of the hand, inscribed with the word “Jew.” It has to be sewn firmly and visibly at the left side of the clothing at the height of the chest.

4)It is prohibited for Jews to wear official decorations, honorary decoration or other kinds of decorations. [...]

Par. 3:

This police order will be effective from the third day after its publication.

The Hague, April 28, 1942
The General-Commissioner for Security and the Higher Commander of the SS and Police

Signed: Raufer

Source: All Dutch evening newspapers, April 29, 1942.


Source: Yad Vashem