The date was February 22, 1943. Hans Scholl and his
sister Sophie, along with their best friend, Christoph Probst, were
scheduled to be executed by Nazi officials that afternoon. The prison guards were so impressed with the
calm and bravery of the prisoners in the face of impending death that
they violated regulations by permitting them to meet together one last
time. Hans, a medical student at the University of Munich, was 24. Sophie,
a student, was 21. Christoph, a medical student, was 22.
This is the story of The White Rose. It is a lesson in dissent. It
is a tale of courage, of principle, of honor. It is detailed in
three books, The White Rose (1970) by Inge Scholl, A Noble Treason (1979) by Richard Hanser, and An Honourable Defeat (1994) by Anton
Hans and Sophie Scholl were German teenagers in the
1930s. Like other young Germans, they enthusiastically joined the Hitler
Youth. They believed that Adolf
Hitler was leading Germany and the German people back to greatness.
Their parents were not so enthusiastic. Their father,
Robert Scholl, told his children that Hitler and the Nazis were leading
Germany down a road of destruction. Later, in 1942, he would serve time
in a Nazi prison for telling his secretary: The war! It is already
lost. This Hitler is God's scourge on mankind, and if the war doesn't
end soon the Russians will be sitting in Berlin. Gradually, Hans
and Sophie began realizing that their father was right. They concluded
that, in the name of freedom and the greater good of the German nation,
Hitler and the Nazis were enslaving and destroying the German people.
They also knew that open dissent was impossible in Nazi Germany,
especially after the start of World
War II. Most Germans took the traditional position, that once war
breaks out, it is the duty of the citizen to support the troops by supporting
the government. But Hans and Sophie Scholl believed differently. They
believed that it was the duty of a citizen, even in times of war, to
stand up against an evil regime, especially when it is sending hundreds
of thousands of its citizens to their deaths.
The Scholl siblings began sharing their feelings with a few of
their friends, Christoph Probst, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf,
as well as with Kurt Huber, their psychology and philosophy
One day in 1942, copies of a leaflet entitled The White Rose
suddenly appeared at the University of Munich. The leaflet
contained an anonymous essay that said that the Nazi system had
slowly imprisoned the German people and was now destroying them.
The Nazi regime had turned evil. It was time, the essay said, for
Germans to rise up and resist the tyranny of their own government.
At the bottom of the essay, the following request appeared: Please
make as many copies of this leaflet as you can and distribute
The leaflet caused a tremendous stir among the student body. It was
the first time that internal dissent against the Nazi regime had
surfaced in Germany. The essay had been secretly written and
distributed by Hans Scholl and his friends.
Another leaflet appeared soon afterward. And then another. And
another. Ultimately, there were six leaflets published and
distributed by Hans and Sophie Scholl and their friends, four under
the title The White Rose and two under the title Leaflets of the
Resistance. Their publication took place periodically between 1942
and 1943, interrupted for a few months when Hans and his friends
were temporarily sent to the Eastern Front to fight against the
The members of The White Rose, of course, had to act cautiously.
The Nazi regime maintained an iron grip over German society. Internal
dissent was quickly and efficiently smashed by the Gestapo.
Hans and Sophie Scholl and their friends knew what would happen to them
if they were caught.
People began receiving copies of the leaflets in the mail. Students
at the University of Hamburg began copying and distributing them.
Copies began turning up in different parts of Germany and Austria.
Moreover, as Hanser points out, the members of The White Rose did
not limit themselves to leaflets. Graffiti began appearing in large
letters on streets and buildings all over Munich: Down with
Hitler! . . . Hitler the Mass Murderer! and Freiheit!
. . . Freiheit! . . . Freedom! . . . Freedom!
The Gestapo was driven into a frenzy. It knew that the authors were
having to procure large quantities of paper, envelopes, and
postage. It knew that they were using a duplicating machine. But
despite the Gestapo's best efforts, it was unable to catch the
One day, February 18, 1943, Hans' and Sophie's luck ran out. They
were caught leaving pamphlets at the University of Munich and were
arrested. A search disclosed evidence of Christoph Probst's
participation, and he too was soon arrested. The three of them were
indicted for treason.
On February 22, four days after their arrest, their
trial began. The presiding judge, Roland
Freisler, chief justice of the People's Court of the Greater German
Reich, had been sent from Berlin.
He conducted the trial as if the future of the Reich were indeed at
stake. He roared denunciations of the accused as if he were not the
judge but the prosecutor. He behaved alternately like an actor
ranting through an overwritten role in an implausible melodrama and
a Grand Inquisitor calling down eternal damnation on the heads of
the three irredeemable heretics before him. . . . No witnesses were
called, since the defendants had admitted everything. The
proceedings consisted almost entirely of Roland Freisler's
denunciation and abuse, punctuated from time to time by
half-hearted offerings from the court-appointed defense attorneys,
one of whom summed up his case with the observation, I can only
say fiat justitia. Let justice be done. By which he meant: Let the
accused get what they deserve.
Freisler and the other accusers could not understand what had
happened to these German youths. After all, they all came from nice
German families. They all had attended German schools. They had
been members of the Hitler Youth. How could they have turned out to
be traitors? What had so twisted and warped their minds?
Sophie Scholl shocked everyone in the courtroom when she remarked
to Freisler: Somebody, after all, had to make a start. What we
wrote and said is also believed by many others. They just don't
dare to express themselves as we did. Later in the proceedings,
she said to him: You know the war is lost. Why don't you have the
courage to face it?
In the middle of the trial, Robert and Magdalene Scholl tried to
enter the courtroom. Magdalene said to the guard: But I'm the
mother of two of the accused. The guard responded: You should
have brought them up better. Robert Scholl forced his way into the
courtroom and told the court that he was there to defend his
children. He was seized and forcibly escorted outside. The entire
courtroom heard him shout: One day there will be another kind of
justice! One day they will go down in history!
Robert Freisler pronounced his judgment on the three defendants:
Guilty of treason. Their sentence: Death.
They were escorted back to Stadelheim prison, where the guards
permitted Hans and Sophie to have one last visit with their
parents. Hans met with them first, and then Sophie. Hansen writes:
His eyes were clear and steady and he showed no sign of dejection
or despair. He thanked his parents again for the love and warmth
they had given him and he asked them to convey his affection and
regard to a number of friends, whom he named. Here, for a moment,
tears threatened, and he turned away to spare his parents the pain
of seeing them. Facing them again, his shoulders were back and he
smiled. . . .
Then a woman prison guard brought in Sophie. . . . Her mother
tentatively offered her some candy, which Hans had declined.
Gladly, said Sophie, taking it. After all, I haven't had any
lunch! She, too, looked somehow smaller, as if drawn together, but
her face was clear and her smile was fresh and unforced, with
something in it that her parents read as triumph. Sophie, Sophie,
her mother murmured, as if to herself. To think you'll never be
coming through the door again! Sophie's smile was gentle. Ah,
Mother, she said. Those few little years. . . . Sophie Scholl
looked at her parents and was strong in her pride and certainty.
We took everything upon ourselves, she said. What we did will
cause waves. Her mother spoke again: Sophie, she said softly,
Remember Jesus. Yes, replied Sophie earnestly, almost
commandingly, but you, too. She left them, her parents, Robert
and Magdalene Scholl, with her face still lit by the smile they
loved so well and would never see again. She was perfectly composed
as she was led away. Robert Mohr [a Gestapo official], who had come
out to the prison on business of his own, saw her in her cell
immediately afterwards, and she was crying. It was the first time
Robert Mohr had seen her in tears, and she apologized. I have just
said good-bye to my parents, she said. You understand . . . She
had not cried before her parents. For them she had smiled.
No relatives visited Christoph Probst. His wife, who had just had
their third child, was in the hospital. Neither she nor any members
of his family even knew that he was on trial or that he had been
sentenced to death. While his faith in God had always been deep and
unwavering, he had never committed to a certain faith. On the eve
of his death, a Catholic priest admitted him into the church in
articulo mortis, at the point of death. Now, he said, my death
will be easy and joyful.
That afternoon, the prison guards permitted Hans, Sophie, and
Christoph to have one last visit together. Sophie was then led to
the guillotine. One observer described her as she walked to her
death: Without turning a hair, without flinching. Christoph
Probst was next. Hans Scholl was last; just before he was
beheaded, Hans cried out: Long live freedom!
Unfortunately, they were not the last to die. The Gestapo's
investigation was relentless. Later tried and executed were Alex
Schmorell (age 25), Willi Graf (age 25), and Kurt Huber (age 49).
Students at the University of Hamburg were either executed or sent
to concentration camps.
Today, every German knows the story of The White Rose. A square at
the University of Munich is named after Hans and Sophie Scholl. And
there are streets, squares, and schools all over Germany named for
the members of The White Rose. The German movie The White Rose is
now found in video stores in Germany and the United States.
Richard Hansen sums up the story of The White Rose:
In the vogue words of the time, the Scholls and their friends
represented the other Germany, the land of poets and thinkers, in
contrast to the Germany that was reverting to barbarism and trying
to take the world with it. What they were and what they did would
have been other in any society at any time. What they did
transcended the easy division of good-German/bad-German and lifted
them above the nationalism of time-bound events. Their actions made
them enduring symbols of the struggle, universal and timeless, for
the freedom of the human spirit wherever and whenever it is