The Laws for the Defense of the Race
(November 11, 1938)
Corriere della Sera Newspaper
Milan, November 11, 1938
The Laws for the Defense of the Race approved by the
Mixed marriages forbidden - The definition of the
Jew, the discriminations and annotations to the Civil State
- The exclusion from the state and state controlled employment and those
of public interest - The norms on elementary and junior high schools
and the teachers.
Rome, November 10
The Government has gathered again this morning at 10 o'clock at the
Viminale Palace, under the presidency of the Duce, with the presence
of all the Ministries and the attendance of the undersecretary of State
at the Minister of Interior. The secretary was the undersecretary of
State at the Presidency of the Government.
The Government had approved on the proposal of the Duce, Minister of
the Interior, a series of legal measures for the Defense of the Italian
Race, of which the following is a summary:
Mixed marriages : Italian citizens may not marry members of the Hamitic,
Semitic or non-Aryan races; government and public employees, civil and
military, may not marry foreign women, no matter what their race; permission
from the Ministry of the Interior must be obtained for the marriage
of Italians, male and female, even with Aryan foreigners; measures against
Italian citizens lowering the prestige of the race in the Empire will
be made more severe.
Definition of the Jewish race : The following are considered to be of
the Jewish race: a person born from two Jewish parents; a person born
of Jewish fathers and foreign (Aryan) mothers; a person born of mixed
marriages who professes the Jewish religion, but not those who, as of
1 October 1938, profess another religion.
Servants and Jews : All those of the Jewish race may not have in any
way Aryans as their servants in the house and as their employees.
Exemption from discrimination : No discrimination on the ground of race
will be made against Jews of Italian citizenship belonging to the families
of (a) men who died, who served as volunteers, or who received military
decorations in the World War or in the Libyan, Ethiopian, or Spanish
wars; (b) men who were killed or wounded in the Fascist cause or who
enrolled in the Fascist Party in the years from 1919 to 1922 or during
the second half of 1924 (i.e. after the Matteotti murder) or who were
members of DAnnunzios Fiume Legions or persons having unusual merits,
to be verified by a special commission.
General dispositions : Jews dismissed from public positions shall be
entitled to the usual pension right, if they worked for a minimum of
Foreign Jews : It is forbidden to the foreigners of the Jewish race
to settle in Italy, Libya or in the colonial possessions in the Aegean;
the Italian citizenship granted to Jewish foreigners after January 1,
1919 will have to be considered as revoked. Apart from controversial
cases to be determinate by a commission of the Ministry of the Interior,
foreign Jews who are over the age of 65 years old or who have married
an Italian prior to 1 October 1938, shall not be expelled.
In addition to the 28 articles of the Laws for the Defense of the Race,
the Fascist Government had approved on the proposal of the Duce, Minister
of the Interior, a series of legal measures for the protection of the
Italian schools, of which the following is a summary:
For the protection of the Italian schools : accordingly to this legal
measure, all those of the Jewish race are forbidden to work and study
in Public and Private Italian schools and the legal measure applies
to all school ranks. There will be established Jewish elementary and
junior high schools with teachers and students of the Jewish race.
Text books : All the study programs and text books
in the school for students of the Jewish race will be the same used
in the public Italian school, with the except of the teaching of the