Leading German officials were tried before the
International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg,
The IMT consisted of judges from Great Britain, France, the
Soviet Union, and the United States. The overwhelming majority of post
1945 war crimes trials, however, involved lower-level officials and
officers. Among them were concentration camp guards and commandants,
police officers, members of the mobile killing squads, and doctors who
participated in medical experiments.
These war criminals were tried by
military courts in the British, American, French, and Soviet zones of
occupied Germany and Austria; and in Italy. Others were tried by the
courts of those countries where they had committed their crimes. Many war
criminals were never brought to trial or punished.