The Deportation and Killing
of the Jews of Kislovodsk
(July 5, 1943)
Destruction of the Jewish Population of Kislovodsk
Kislovodsk, July 5, 1943
We, the undersigned, citizens of the city of Kislovodsk:
Pyotr Aleksandrovich Ostankov, Professor of Leningrad Medical Institute No.
1, distinguished scientist, living at Clara Zetkin Street 4; Timofei
Yefremovich Gnilorybov, professor, Head Surgeon at the convalescent home of
Kislovodsk, living at Paris Commune Street No. 9; Mikhail Yefimovich
Gontaryov, assistant at the Medical Institute in Leningrad, living at Paris
Commune Street No. 9; Mikhail Zakharovich Fingerut, living at Chkalov
42a; Naum Mikhaylovich Gorelik, living at Chkalov No. 45; Yevgenya
Terentyevna Kovnatnaya, living at Volodarskaya No. 3; and Boris Yakovlevich
Khshive, living at Terski Square No. 1/4, have compiled this protocol on
the crimes of the Jewish nationality, residents of the city of Kislovodsk,
in the region of Stravropol.
On August 16, 1942, the German Command and its
representatives, the military commander of the city of Kislovodsk, Pohl,
and the head of the Gestapo, Welben, set up a Jewish Committee in the city
of Kislovodsk, under the chairmanship of Moisey Samoylovich Beninson, born
1878 (dentist, who lived at Stalin Street 22). He was told by the German
Command to collect from the Jewish population and hand over immediately
such valuables as gold, diamonds, silver, carpets, clothing, linens and
In the hope of saving Jewish lives by handing over the
above valuables to the Germans, the Jewish Committee collected and
delivered to the German Commander, Pohl, 100,000 rubles in cash, 530
articles made of gold or silver, rings, watches, cigarette cases, 105 dozen
silver spoons, 230 pairs of shoes, mens suits, coats, and carpets.
According to market prices this contribution [forced levy] was worth about
On August 18, 1942, the military commander of the City
of Kislovodsk, Pohl, ordered a register to be made of the Jewish population
without regard to sex or age. After the registration all persons of Jewish
nationality were ordered to wear an identifying mark on the right side of
the chest – a six-cornered star – which they call the "Star of
The Jewish population between the ages of 16 through 60
was rounded up by the German Command for various forms of forced labor: for
the building of the airfield, and the paving of the roads. The doctors and
professors were made to sweep and clean the streets. The work was done
without any payment.
On September 7, 1942, the German Command No. 12 issued
an order requiring the Jews to report to the railway station (at the
freight station) on September 9, to take with them baggage not exceeding 20
kgs. in weight, valuables, and food for two days, in order, it was
indicated, to travel from there to "sparsely populated" places in
the Ukraine. They were ordered to hand in to Command No. 12 the keys of
their apartments, each key to be marked with a label with the address.
On September 9, 1942, 2,000 Jews assembled at the
freight station in Kislovodsk, including aged people, women and children.
The Nazis took the hand baggage and also the food from the Jews, who were
loaded onto 18 open freight cars and two covered cars, which stood ready
for this purpose. The train then pulled out with a reinforced German guard
in the direction of the railway station of Mineralnya Vody, where,
according to eye-witnesses, the Jews were shot.
Among those deported and shot by the Germans were many
medical workers including: Professor Baumholtz, Dr. Chatzki and his family,
Dr. Schwarzman, the physician Sokolski, Dr. Mereynes, Dr. Drivinski and the
Jewish writer Bregman. Altogether 117 medical workers perished.
Many of the Jews committed suicide because of the danger
of brutality by the German Command against the Jews; these included Dr.
Wilenski and his wife; Dr. Bugayevskaya and the nurse Pokrovskaya.
Dr. Feinberg, his wife and daughter tried to commit
suicide by taking morphine and cutting their arteries, but the vile Germans
did not let them die; they moved them to the clinic, cured them and shot
Among the Jews deported from Kislovodsk and shot in
Mineralnya Vody were 9 Jewish children from the Childrens Home No. 18,
aged 4-6 years. These were Olya Nimerovskaya, aged 6; Rosa Steinberg, aged
6; Grisha Shops, aged 7; Vova Shops, aged 5; Lyusik Shmaroner, aged 5; Ella
Uritzkaya, aged 6; Yasha Uritzki, aged 4; Pavel Uritzki, aged 4; and Kolya
Klunger, aged 5.
The citizen Fingerut, who escaped the shooting of the
Jews, gave detailed evidence on the course of the shooting.
The train with the deported Jews arrived at the glass
factory. The Germans who accompanied the transport ordered the Jews to get
down from the freight cars, hand over their money and valuables, and then
ordered them to undress.
With heart-rending cries the women, children and old
people took off their clothing and stood dressed only in their underwear.
Afterwards this mass of people, almost out of its mind with fear, was taken
away to the anti-tank ditches, surrounded by German guards carrying
submachine-guns. Anyone who tried to escape was shot dead.
At the ditches the Germans shot the Jews with
submachine-guns and machine-guns.
The Germans took out 40 persons – men – and forced
them to collect and load on the freight cars all the possessions of those
who had been shot and afterwards took them, too, to the ditch and shot
As a result it has been established that the Military
Commander of the city of Kislovodsk, Pohl, the head of the Gestapo Welben,
and his assistant Weber, on September 9, 1942, carried out a cruel
slaughter of the Jews of the city of Kislovodsk, 2,000 in number, including
old people, women and children.
The facts stated above are confirmed by the following:
1. The printed decree of German Command No. 12 of
September 2, 1942, given in the city of Kislovodsk, concerning the
deportation of the Jews;
2. The official list of valuables handed over to the
3. The printed announcement by the German Supreme
Commander "to the Civilian Population of the Caucasus" in Russian
4. The evidence of M.Z. Fingerut, Y.T. Kovnatnaya, B.Y.
Khshive, L.R. Lipman, Ch. R. Gertzber, E.I. Parkhomenko, L.I. Pavlova, A.M.
Mirzoyan, Z.I. Kovina;
5. The document of Hospital No. 5404;
6. The document of Childrens Home No. 18;
7. The list of Jews killed, numbering 894 persons.
P.A. Ostankov, T.Y. Gnilorybov, M.Y. Gontaryov, M.Z.
Fingerut, N.M. Gorelik, Y.T. Kovnatnaya, B.Y. Khshive.
("Documents Accuse"), II, Moscow, 1945, pp. 140-142.