After the Nazis had come to power von Schirach, utilising
both physical violence and official pressure, either drove out of existence
or took over all youth groups which competed with the Hitler Jugend.
A Hitler decree of 1st December, 1936, incorporated all German youth
within the Hitler Jugend. By the time formal conscription was introduced
in 1940. 97 per cent. of those eligible were already members.
Von Schirach used the Hitler Jugend to educate German
Youth " in the spirit of National Socialism " and subjected
them to an intensive programme of Nazi propaganda. He established the
Hitler Jugend as a source of replacements for the Nazi Party formations.
he entered into an agreement with Himmler under which members of the Hitler Jugend who met SS standards would be considered as the primary source of replacements
for the SS.
Von Schirach also used the Hitler Jugend for pre-military
training. Special units were set up whose primary purpose was training
specialists for the various branches of the service. On 11th August, 1939, he entered
into an agreement with Keitel under which the Hitler Jugend agreed to carry out its pre-military activities
under standards laid down by the Wehrmacht and the Wehrmacht agreed
to train 30,000 Hitler Jugend instructors each year. The Hitler Jugend
placed particular emphasis on the military spirit and its training programme
stressed the importance of return of the colonies, the necessity for
Lebensraum and the noble destiny of German youth to die for Hitler.
Despite the warlike nature of the activities of the
Hitler Jugend, however, it does not appear that von Schirach was involved
in the development of Hitler's plan for territorial expansion by means
of aggressive war, or that he participated in the planning or preparation
of any of the wars of aggression.
In July, 1940, von Schirach was appointed Gauleiter
of Vienna. At the same time he
was appointed Reichs Governor for Vienna and Reichs Defence Commissioner
originally for Military District 17, including the Gaus of Vienna, Upper
Danube and Lower Danube and, after 17th November, 1942,
for the Gau of Vienna alone. As Reichs Defence Commissioner, he had
control of the civilian war economy. As Reichs Governor he was head
of the municipal administration of the city of Vienna, and, under the
supervision of the Minister of the Interior in charge of the governmental
administration of the Reich in Vienna.
Von Schirach is not charged with the commission of
war crimes in Vienna, only with the commission of crimes against humanity.
As has already been seen, Austria was occupied pursuant to a common
plan of aggression. Its occupation is, therefore, a " crime within
the jurisdiction of the Tribunal," as that term is used in Article
6 (c) of the Charter. As a result, " murder, extermination, enslavement,
deportation and ether inhumane acts " and " persecutions on
political, racial or religious grounds " in connection with this
occupation constitute a crime against humanity under that Article.
As Gauleiter of Vienna, von Schirach came under the
Sauckel decree dated 6th April, 1942, making the Gauleiters Sauckel's
plenipotentiaries for manpower with authority to supervise the utilisation
and treatment of manpower within their Gaus. Sauckel's directives provided
that the forced labourers were to be fed, sheltered and treated so as
to exploit them to the highest possible degree at the lowest possible
When von Schirach became Gauleiter of Vienna the deportation
of the Jews had already been begun, and Only 60,000 out of Vienna's
original 190,000 Jews remained. On 2nd October, 1940, he attended a
conference at Hitler's office and told Frank that he had 50,000 Jews
in Vienna which the General Government would have to take over from
him. On 3rd December, 1940, von Schirach received a letter from Lammers
stating that after the receipt of the reports made by von Schirach,
Hitler had decided to deport the 60,000 Jews still remaining in Vienna
to the General Government because of the housing shortage in Vienna.
The deportation of the Jews from Vienna was then begun and continued
until the early fall of 1942. On 15th September, 1942, von Schirach
made a speech in which he defended his action in having driven "
tens of thousands upon tens of thousands of Jews into the Ghetto of
the East " as " contributing to European culture."
While the Jews were being deported from Vienna reports,
addressed to him in his official capacity, were received in von Schirach's
office from the office of the Chief of the Security Police and SD which
contained a description of the activities of Einsatzgruppen in exterminating
Jews. Many of these reports were initialled by one of von Schirach's
principal deputies. On 30th June, 1944, von Schirach's office also received
a letter from Kaltenbrunner informing him that a shipment of 12,000
Jews was on its way to Vienna for essential war work and that all those
who were incapable of work would have to be kept in readiness for "
The Tribunal finds that von Schirach, while he did
not originate the policy of deporting Jews from Vienna, participated
in this deportation after he had become Gauleiter of Vienna. He knew
that the best the Jews could hope for was a miserable existence in the
Ghettoes of the East. Bulletins describing the Jewish extermination
were in his office.
While Gauleiter of Vienna, von Schirach continued to
function as Reichsleiter for Youth Education and in this capacity he
was informed of the Hitler Jugend's participation in the plan put into
effect in the fall of 1944 under which 50,000 young people between the
ages of 10 and 20 were evacuated into Germany from areas recaptured
by the Soviet forces and used as apprentices in German industry and
as auxiliaries in units of the German armed forces. In the summer of
1942, von Schirach telegraphed Bormann urging that a bombing attack
on an English cultural town be carried out in retaliation for the assassination
of Heydrich which, he claimed, had been Planned by the British.