Jews and the Ansbach Cattle Markets

(1933-1934)


[In a City Council meeting on 29 August 1933, one of the council members, Haenel demanded the exclusion of Jewish cattle dealers from the markets.]

Document 1:
13 September 1933
City Council Report: Situation in the Markets

The Ansbach cattle markets lost their importance before World War I, once the cattle market in Nuremberg was established. Business was reduced sharply during and after the war. Attempts were made to revive the market in 1925 and to hold them at least twice a month. This was partially successful. Unfortunately the Jews are the largest contingent of dealers. At the time the associations of the farmers and other organizations were called upon to increase the participation of farmers in the area in the markets. However, most of the promises were not kept.

In case the Jewish element that controls up to 80% of the market is removed, and if the markets are not to disappear but be enlarged, special strong measures have to be undertaken.

Mayor Boehm has had talks with me and the slaughter-house commission has held serious discussions about the situation. It now seems urgently necessary that the Council arrange a large meeting with the participation of the Party leadership of the area, the functionaries dealing with the farmers, Mr. Schuster and Dorner and local heads of the political divisions of the Party in the entire area.

The slaughter-house commission expects best results from the influence of the political chiefs on the farmers. A number of Christian farmers should also be invited to this meeting. Council member Haesslein has the list of those farmers.


Document 2:
25 October 1933
City Council Report

A meeting of the National Cattle Dealers Association held on 8 October 1933 at the Hotel Zirkel resulted in no decisions of importance regarding the local cattle markets.

The exclusion of Jewish dealers from the markets is possible. As the number of Christian dealers of the entire area is very small, the future existence of the market, as I have already outlined in my report of 9 November 1933, No. 5640, depends wholly on the farmers of Ansbach and the larger surrounding areas visiting and doing business at the market. As I am familiar with the situation over the past 24 years, I do not believe that a mere appeal to the farmers will suffice. Rather, I believe it is necessary to call for a rally with a clear declaration to the farmers of the Ansbach area before issuing such a circular. Such meetings will be held in Windsheim, Windsbach, Dietenhofen, Gunzenhausen and other places. Only the cooperation of those farmers will ensure the maintenance and development of the local markets....


Document 3:
2 December 1933:
City Council Testimony

Head of the Municipal Slaughter House

Dealing in the Jewish language is forbidden in the cattle markets and other markets. Recently I have not heard or observed use of the Jewish language in the cattle market, although I do not have much time to supervise the dealing, as I am busy examining cattle at the entrance. It should be recommended to have the actual supervisory bodies, such as the police and the master of the market, see to it that dealing in the Jewish language will stop immediately. If necessary, such dealers should be barred from the market.

I wish to use this opportunity to make another point. At the last horse market, where I am happy to say almost all the horses came from Christian dealers and farmers (47 out of 51 horses), Jewish dealers tried repeatedly, and in various ways, to disrupt deals in the making. In this case too the supervising bodies should be instructed to intervene ruthlessly and to expel the trouble makers. It would be good if a policeman in civilian clothes was present, as such trouble makers refrain from interfering when they see me or a uniformed policeman.

The prices are noted by the market master with the official veterinarians and published in the newspapers after the market.

There is no other way to publicize each and every deal, as the sale is a private matter between buyer and salesman and the authorities have no right to follow the details of each individual deal.

In this matter I wish to state the following: It is proper that numerous farmers come to the horse and cattle markets to learn about the prices. It is their right. It is unfortunate that they then go home and sell their cattle to Jews. Only yesterday have I been notified by the local cattle assessor that his business in the country is bad and that the farmers sell their cattle again and again to Jews. This is the case with our markets too. The farmers should bring their cattle to be sold in the market and buy what they need from other farmers in the market, rather than use the market to get an idea about the going prices and then give their cattle to the Jews.


Document 4:
5 December 1933
Mayor of Ansbach

I request that the police supervise the market in accordance with the suggestions of Betscher the head of the slaughter house....


Document 5:
15 March 1934
Police Report

Two policemen were posted at the market. According to the reports of the agents the dealing has, since then, been done only in the German language.


Document 6:
10 February 1934
Orders of Interior Minister Frick

I. An order by Interior Minister Frick, published in the newspapers, states that the Aryan clause of the law for the Restoration of the Civil Service is not to be extended to areas that were not intended by the legislators, especially not in the free economy. The different authorities are ordered to apply measures and decisions only as specified by the laws, and to decisively intervene in cases of excesses. A change, extension or annulment of a law of the Reich is the matter of the Reich government and not of the authorities charged with the execution of the legislation.

II. Division II-b is in agreement that because of the position of the Minister of the Interior that is binding for the administration, there will be no official expulsion of Jewish dealers from the horse and cattle markets.


Document 6:
12 February 1934
Mayor of Ansbach

There can be no expulsion of the Jewish dealers from the cattle markets. However a supervision, such as is ordered in Ansbach, can certainly take place. The Jewish question cannot be solved by draconian compulsive measures, it can only be achieved by a comprehensive change of the state of mind of the entire population in the good sense of the national-socialist world view. This change can be accomplished by an ongoing process of enlightenment by the political leadership.


Document 7:
25 September 1934
Letter to City Council
Karl Betz, Horse Dealer
To the honorable City Council, Ansbach

Re: Not admitting Jewish dealers to the Ansbach horse market.

The undersigned together with the following horse dealers: Kroner from Erlangen, the Brothers Beizer from Duenkelsbuehl, Rizmaier from Ansbach, Seller from Windsheim, Asselt from Rothenburg and Asselt from Burgbernheim, requests the honorable city council of Ansbach to prohibit the Jewish dealers access to the horse market in Ansbach, as is done in other places.

With German greetings,
Karl Betz, horse dealer


Document 8:
15 October 1934

Referat VI (Economics Committee) Order Referat VI is issuing an order to put up a sign at the proper place in the next horse market declaring that attendance by non-Aryans is not wanted. The same declaration will be made in the notices announcing the market. Horse dealer Betz is to be notified of the fulfillment of his request.


Document 9:
26 October 1935
Munich Political Police
To Police and Municipal Agencies in Bavaria
Re: Jews in the cattle markets.

The Political Police Commander of the states announces:

After having received complaints from certain districts in the German Reich that the cattle business is still today largely in Jewish hands, a complaint against the Jewish dealers has been made together with the Butchers Association to the Deputy Fuehrer. This complaint specified that cattle for slaughter is bought by Jewish dealers at high prices while almost no cis offered at the regular prices in the cattle markets. The result of this situation would be a rise in the price of meat and sausage products in spite of the prohibition and orders.

Even though most of the blame lies with the inefficiency of the cattle assessment organizations, it is supposed that this situation is the result of a planned attack by Jewry that aims at creating unrest and dissatisfaction in the population.

I request a statistical report on how many Jewish and how many Aryan dealers are active in your area, and to what extent can you observe that the situation is the result of a planned attack by Jewry. The reports should be submitted by 10 November 1935.

(signed) Beck


Document 10:
[November 1935]
City Council Report

There are altogether 33 cattle dealers in the Ansbach area. Twenty one of them are Aryan and 12 are of Jewish origin. Seventeen of the Aryan dealers are independent, 3 are buyers for another cattle dealer and one is an intermediary.

Regarding the question whether our observations show that the situation is the result of a planned attack by Jewry, we have asked the local head of the cattle dealers. He made the following comments:

Most of the Jewish cattle dealers by means of a concession receive from the farmers somewhat higher prices for their cattle. Better conditions of payment help the Jewish dealers to create a certain circle of clients. The Jewish dealers take some of their cattle clandestinely, without registering it with the dealers foreman as specified by law. They send the cattle on to the large cities, especially Mannheim and Frankfurt.

For example 24 beasts were registered with the foreman for the week 24-31 October 1935. Of these 14 were registered by Jewish dealers. In the week of 1-7 November 1935, 115 beasts were registered, 60 of them by Jews. However the unknown cases, where Jews buy cattle and do not register them, still requires regulation by the economic authorities.

This declaration of the foreman states that in some localities no Jew can buy cattle any longer, but in others he is still as much at home as before. This depends on the intensity of the propaganda practiced in the area. In places with a National Socialist mayor and a population that is enlightened about the Jewish question, the Jews dare not show themselves or show themselves less than before....

Source: Yad Vashem Archive M1DN/199


Source: Yad Vashem - Eclipse of Humanity