When Jerusalem was captured from the Muslims in the First Crusade on July 15, 1099, the Christian conquerors decided to create a government to rule the Middle Eastern lands they controlled (which included parts of what are now Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Israel). Godfrey of Bouillon, a French nobleman, and one of the leaders of the Crusade, was chosen to govern the kingdom. He eschewed the title of king, calling himself instead the defender of the Holy Sepulchre. When Godfrey died in 1100, he was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin I, who took the title of king and ruled until 1118.
The kingdom remained in the family until the Muslim forces of Saladin reconquered Jerusalem in 1187. The Crusaders returned and took the city back in 1228. The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick II, became king of Jerusalem.
The Muslims returned in 1244 and, over the next 47 years, gradually pushed the Crusaders out of Palestine. The end of the Latin Kingdom came with the loss of its capital in Acre (Akko) in 1291.