The Babylonian Empire under King Nebukhadnetzar
The Babylonian Empire was built by King Nebukhadnetzar and lasted few years after his death. Nebukhadnetzar besieged Jerusalem and performed three deportations of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Judah to Babylon. With the last deportation he destroyed Jerusalem and almost the whole population went in exile; initially relocated in different lands of those where the deported Northern Israelites dwelled, the exile of Judah lasted only 70 years; after then, only a few of them returned back to Jerusalem. They became numerous throughout the Medo-Persian Empire that succeeded the Babylonian; in that period, they also shared the same lands inhabited by the Northern Israelites.
Source: Map courtesy of Imninalu.net, cannot be republished without consent from author or AICE.