The history of female combat soldiers in the IDF can be dividend into three distinct eras:
- 1948: Women on full combat status during the War of Independence
- 1948-Late 1990's: No women allowed in combat roles
- Late 1990's-Present: Majority of combat positions - including pilots and special forces - open to women
When it was first formed in 1948, the IDF was forced to use any and all available personnel as combat soldiers, regardless of gender. As Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion said at the time:
"Since you rightly believe that the security of the State must be pursued night and day, I want you to know that that security will not exist if our nation’s women do not know how to fight. We are few – and our enemies are many. If, heaven forbid, a war falls upon us, the men will go to fight the enemy, and if, heaven forbid, the women who are protecting their children at home do not know how to use a weapon – what will be their end if the enemy falls upon them?
Follwing the War of Independence, however, and lasting until the late 1990's, no women were allowed to serve combat positions, aside from a short attempt in the 1950's to accept women into flight school. However, women did take over almost all field instructing positions in the IDF.
That all started to change in 1994 when the High Court of Justice, under appeal by a female immigrant from South Africa, ruled that some combat roles should be open to female soldiers. Three years later, in 1997, Alice Miller filed a an appeal to the Supreme Court to be accepted into the IDF's highly elite Air Force flight school. Miller won the lawsuit and the IDF officially began accepting women as flight candidates.
In 2000, the Equality amendment to the Defense Service Law stated that the right of women to serve in any role in the IDF is equal to the right of men. Soon after, women were allowed to serve in nearly all combat positions. Women recruited for combat units have to serve for 30 months instead of the normal mandatory period for women of 21 months.
In early 2000, the IDF decided to also deploy women in the artillery corps, followed by infantry units, armored divisions and elite combat units. The Navy has also decided to place women in its diving repair unit. Altogether, at the beginning of 2004, about 450 women were in combat units.
The Caracal company, a co-ed infantry unit subordinate to the Nahal Brigade, was established to patrol Israel's southern border with Egypt for drug smugglers and terrorist infiltrators. The elite commando K9 unit, Oketz, also drafts females as dog trainers and soldiers.
During the early-2000's, additional Supreme Court appeals as well as political pressure swayed the IDF to open even more combat positions to women. Today female soldiers can be found on combat status in the Artillery Corps, Combat Engineering Corps, Light Infantry, Military Police, Border Police and other units.
On May 26, 2011, Defense Minister Ehud Barak oversaw one of the IDF's most historic internal events when he approved the promotion of Brigadier General Orna Barbivai to Major General and to the head of the IDF Manpower Directorate. In so doing, Barbivai became the first female ever to attain the rank of Major General in the IDF.
In October 2011, the 27 female combat soldiers completed the IDF Ground Forces Officers Training Course along with 369 male soldiers and were promoted to the rank of second lieutenant. The new female officers serve in a wide range of combat units from artillery to Caracal and tanks.
In January 2014, the IDF announced that Major Oshrat Bacher will be promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and placed as a Brigade Commander in a Combat Intelligence unit. Major Bacher's promotion will mark the first time in the IDF's history that a female soldier rises to command a combat brigade.
Since 2012, the number of women in combat roles has been steadily rising. In 2012, 600 women joined co-ed combat battalions, and the following year 1,365 joined. This trend continues today: in 2017 more than 2,700 women were recruited to mixed-gender IDF battalions (an all-time high), compared with 2,100 in 2016.
Approximately 7% of women in the IDF serve in combat roles today, as opposed to to 3% in 2012. Today, 90% of the combat assignments are open to women.
In addition to traditional roles, women serve in the IDF as “lone soldiers,” taken in by Kibbutz families and tasked with monitoring border activity. Oftentimes these lone soldiers are females from other countries such as South Africa, Italy, Germany, Australia, and the United States.
Since Israel's establishment in 1948, forty-four female soldiers have been killed in combat.
Sources: Israeli Government Press Office;
The Jewish Week, (January 2, 2004);
Bar Ben-Ari, “A Woman of Valor,” Israel Defense Forces, (August 1, 2007);
“New Female Combat Officers of the IDF,” IDF Spokesperson (October 27, 2011; January 2, 2014);
Israel Defense Forces;
Yossi Yehoshua, “Number of female combat soldiers highest ever,” YNet News (August 5, 2016);
Amos Harel, “Rate of Female Israeli Soldiers Serving in Combat Roles Doubled in Four Years,” Haaretz (October 23, 2016);
Michael Blum, “Women increasingly join the fight in Israel's army,” Yahoo, (November 20, 2016);
IDF sees spike in number of women serving in combat units, Israel Hayom, (January 31, 2017);
Number of women in combat roles reaches record high, YNet News, (November 16, 2017);