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Byzantine Rule: 313-636

Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome: to 311

Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter): fl. 200-254

Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris: 203

Emperor Caracalla enfranchises all Jews within Roman empire, allowing them to become full citizens: 212

Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab: ca. 220

Roman emperor Alexander Severus's resepct for Jews and lenient treatment towards them enables Judah II to sucessfully press for greater Jewish rights, including the right to visit Jerusalem: 222-235

Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud: 220-470

Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis: 240-276

Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I: ca. 250

Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt: 250-330

Eusebius (Christian author, historian): 263-339

Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian: 303

One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews: 306

Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of Toleration: 312/313

Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's first anti-Jewish act: 315

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